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TOP Programming Languages for 2023

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Software code writing is one of the essential skills in the modern world. Computers, smartphones, and other gadgets are integral to many sectors, and almost any service employs these technologies. Those, who strive to get a decent job, bright future, and other advantages must know the most in-demand programming languages to learn in 2023. 

Programmers and developers develop rapidly. There are several levels of programming with different means of employment that will fit experts or beginners. Let’s figure out what languages are the best for modern realia. 

Levels of programming

A pyramid with levels of programming structured by the complexity of mastering and demand.

A pyramid with levels of programming structured by the complexity of mastering and demand

There are various programming languages. Each has its purpose, unique syntax, or even form and supports entire industries. They differ in the level of abstraction and are divided into high and low-level groups. 

Low-level languages

This category includes machine instruction and has machine-level and assembly-level languages. 

Low-level languages

High-level languages

These help people to create programs that do not depend on the computer. These languages are high-level since they are similar to human language; hence, they are easier to understand yet require logic for the task. Moreover, they employ compilers to go to low-level. The main advantages of this category are easy servicing, learning, and no dependence on machines, which provides portability. 

High-level languages

Type of programming

Five types of programming

Five types of programming

Before studying the most in-demand programming languages in 2023, it is necessary to understand all available types of programming. The types of languages differ from level and help to know where to employ the code rather than its hierarchy. 

Let’s have a look at five primary programming language types. 

  1. Procedural programming languages determine the structured procedures and actions for building software. Namely, it includes the commands, functions, operators, and variables. For example, Basic, C, Java, PASCAL, and others are procedural programming languages.
  2. Functional programming languages employ and create functions to run the software. The basis of this programming language is lambda calculus, where conditional expressions and recursion are applied. The most popular languages in this group are Haskell, SML, Scala, and F#.
  3. Object-oriented programming languages use modules with data in the field and code form instead of procedures.  Provide many features, including abstraction, encapsulation, polymorphism, inheritance, and classes. A unique feature is code security due to encapsulation, with the ability to reapply the code for possible improvement without code changes. Good examples of such languages are Java, C++, C#, Python, Javascript, and others.
  4. Scripting does not need a compilation step. The languages are often used for applications, game programs, and multimedia. Suitable for plugins and browser extensions. The most famous examples are Javascript, PHP, and PERL, Shell, Python, Ruby.
  5. Logic-based languages are based on formal logic; they do not tell the machines what to do but leave restrictions on the tasks. The primary examples in this group are PROLOG and ASAP, which are needed for typing answers, and Datalog.
Now, as you understand basic types of programming languages, we can explore the best of them in 2023. These languages will undoubtedly be necessary for developing software, applications, etc. 

TOP ‘HOT’ programming languages in 2023

It is unnecessary to study all languages immediately. It will suffice to learn and succeed with one, and then learning other means of writing code will suffice. 


JavaScript is critical for becoming a decent software developer in the modern world. According to a Stack Overflow developers’ survey, JavaScript has been the most famous and popular language for ten years. Almost 70% of answers say that the developers used it in the past. 

The jobs that require knowing JavaScript or TypeScript as the primary programming language

The jobs that require knowing JavaScript or TypeScript as the primary programming language

HTML, CSS, and JavaScript are essential for web development. Many popular platforms, including Facebook, Gmail, YouTube, etc., rely on JavaScript. This language helps to make interactive pages and dynamic content. 

First, this is an interface language for browsers, yet with Node.js, developers can work on scalable network applications. 

The syntax is straightforward, flexible, and fits all popular browsers. It is easy to learn for beginners. JavaScript can create almost any product with a high level of quality. 

JavaScript programming language

JavaScript programming language
Main JavaScript advantages:
  1. High work speed, including browsers.
  2. Easy to implement and learn.
  3. Helps to create a rich interface for applications.
  4. Popular.
  5. Compatible with other languages.
  6. Reduces the load on the website server since it employs a client. 
  7. ECMAScript provides constant updates. 
  8. Numerous additions that increase functionality and customize the application or website. 
  9. Excellent community support.
  1. JavaScript doesn’t support copy methods. 
  2. There are different integration methods depending on the browser. Therefore, writing the code may be difficult. 
  3. Some browsers can disable code execution because it is used to pop-up windows with advertising content, which can carry a threat.
Learning the language is advisable due to its simplicity in developing applications for smartphones, the web, games, and other applications. The language appeared in 1995 and was called LiveScript. Its prime focus is the front end, yet it can suffice for full-stack development. 


The developers who focus on Apple products can use Swift programming language to develop applications for iOS smartphones. It is one of the best instruments in the world for iOS development. The language is relatively new. It’s optimized for increasing productivity and meets all innovative iOS products’ needs. iOS, as an operating system, runs smartphones, tablets, laptops, watchOS, and tvOS. In addition, Apple has been a leader in technology for several years; therefore, in 2023, Swift will remain relevant for developers. Furthermore, iOS applications are the most profitable in the entire market.

Swift programming language

Swift programming language

In 2022, Swift is rated TOP-2 for learning. About 90% of all applications for Apple products run in this language.

The main advantages are:

  1. Transparency, simplicity, and speed.
  2. Straightforward, even for beginners. 
  3. Easy to scale. 
  4. Doesn’t require strong language in programming compared to other languages. 
  5. Supports Objective-C code. 
  6. Highly productive. 
  1. It doesn’t support earlier versions.
  2. The community is not significant.
  3. It is hardly compatible with other instruments. 
Studying the manuals to adopt beginner skills for working with the language is necessary, yet there is no need for experience in other languages. 

Swift has an open-source code. The syntax is similar to the English language; therefore, it’s pretty similar to Java and C#. The code is optimized and highly productive; hence, the scalability is significant. If a developer wants to work with App Store, this programming language is a must-know. Also, Instagram, Uber, and Slack employ Swift. 


Scala is a modern Java analog. It has the advantages of Java, including the object-oriented structure and highly-productive JVM environment, yet uses a modern approach to solving various tasks. This instrument is certainly one of the best in 2023 for smartphone applications.

Scala programming language

Scala programming language

Engineers can increase the quality of code with Scala. It supports parallel programming for complex procedures. Not only that, but the language is strictly typed; the developers can use it to create and set personal data types, eliminating countless issues. 


It is the fundamental language for Google corporation since it provides countless opportunities. Go is a low-level language that perfectly fits system programming. It has almost all the functional features of C and C++, yet the syntax is not that complicated. It is much easier to learn and perfectly fits web server development or machine learning packages. 

The popularity of Go grows slowly, yet in 2023 it can enter the TOP 5 on the market

The popularity of Go grows slowly, yet in 2023 it can enter the TOP 5 on the market

Go is a compilable language with a high speed of inquiry execution. It has open-source code and countless other advantages. Programmers all around the world love it. 

Go is also known as Golang. Google created it, and no supports multithreading. Many companies that employ distributed system are excited about multithreading feature.

Go programming language

Go programming language
Go advantages:
  1. It’s effortless to learn, yet super-productive and powerful for network-related products. 
  2. It has a vast library for many sectors.
  3. Elementary syntax.
  4. Statistics typifying favorably affects security. 
  5. It is compatible with other languages. 
  6. It compiles machine code; hence, it guarantees speed. 
  7. Go supports automatization, an advantage for AUI in the science and information industries. 
  8. It is perfect for one-page applications.
  1. It lacks the power to become the language of common usage. 
  2. Writing an existing code requires more time. 
  3. It is a young language with a minor ecosystem. 
  4. There are no generics. 
  5. There is no virtual machine.
  6. It lacks versatility.
Google corporation actively supports this programming language; thence, it can become a server language in the future. It is easy to learn if one already knows the basics of any programming language. In other cases, it will require more time for learning. Go supports the following sectors:
  • Google applications;
  • System/network programming;
  • Working with information;
  • Audio/video editing.
Initially, this language was supposed to be used by programmers who develop significant projects. In a few years, many considerable IT companies started to employ it. Namely:
  • Google;
  • Uber;
  • Twitch;
  • Dropbox. 
The straightforwardness and use of modern structure and uncomplicated and intuitive syntax have driven the demand for learning the language. 


Python is one of the best programming languages in the world. It provides comfort and a straightforward syntax similar to the English language. This factor makes it excellent for beginners. 

It combines numerous applications that make it a versatile and powerful tool. For instance, Django runs on Python. This language has an open-source code; therefore, it is perfect for server web development. The platform is popular, multifunctional, and easy to learn. Mozilla, Instagram, and other resources employed it. 

Python was the second most demanded programming language in 2022.

Python was the second most demanded programming language in 2022
Science computing and engineering use python since it has NumPy and SciPy packets. There are other libraries for scientific software, machine learning, working with data, etc.
  1. TensorFlow.
  2. PyTorch.
  3. Sci-kit-learn.
  4. OpenCV.
Python is perfect for applications focused on learning and science. Furthermore, it is a reasonable choice for mobile software development

Python programming language

Python programming language

The language is fast and easy to operate; it is one of the best programming languages to learn in 2023.

The primary benefits are:

  1. Straightforward syntax, easy to understand, and higher developers’ productivity.
  2. Supports many platforms and systems; thus, Google, Netflix, Quora, and other significant companies prefer this programming language. 
  3. It has vast libraries of code and frameworks
  4. It provides easy scaling for even the most enormous applications. 
  5. Furthermore, it offers numerous free and helpful resources that share knowledge. 
  6. Likewise, it compiles scripts while executing. 
  7. It has simplified debugging due to line-by-line code execution and consecutive issue reports. 
  8. It is easy to integrate with web services. 
  9. Not only that, but it’s perfect for a quick idea test. 
  1. Poor code execution speed since the language does it line-by-line. 
  2. Significant load on the memory. 
  3. It is not advisable for the application front end. 
  4. It is limited to mobile application usage. 
  5. It does not support multithreading. 
Python has been in the TOP 5 for the recent five years. It is a free, open-source programming language and is definitely best for beginners. Here are the main sectors of employment:
  1. Web development.
  2. Desktop graphical interfaces.
  3. Business applications.
  4. Machine learning.
  5. Deep learning.
  6. Data Science.
  7. Artificial intelligence.
  8. Game development.
  9. Microcontrollers.
  10. Data processing through analysis and visualization. 
Even though python is versatile, it succeeds in working with browser applications AI learning systems, games, and multimedia products. 


Elm is the youngest language on the list. An ordinary Harvard student created it for his diploma thesis. Now, front-end developers use it, and its popularity increases daily. 

Elm programming language

Elm programming language

Elm compiles JavaScript; hence, it is appropriate for building error-less interfaces while executing code. The developers can make user interfaces without HTML or CSS elements. 

Primary advantages: 

  1. Versatile for private projects.
  2. No Runtime errors since these are eliminated during compilation. 
  3. Excellent productivity. 
The syntax is also a benefit here; it's likewise JavaScript without redundant symbols, so beginners can efficiently study it. 


Ruby is a programming language frequently applied for web development. It is often used as the root for the web application frameworks Ruby on Rails (full-fledged web application environment). The beginners will love it since it is friendly and has a beautiful community ready to help and share. The syntax is elementary. Most giant technology corporations use the language:
  • Twitter;
  • Airbnb;
  • Bloomberg;
  • Shopify.
Ruby programming language
Ruby programming language
The developers have to build a complex approach to employ Ruby efficiently and solve their issues. Also, abstract thinking is necessary since it allows one to visualize what a user wants to see in a ready application. 

The main advantages:

  1. It rapidly deploys applications and websites.
  2. The syntax is simple and easy to read and understand. 
  3. The programming style is optimal.
  4. The security functional is terrific.
  5. A developed community.
  6. Countless valuable tools are available.
  7. The specialists are well-paid. 
  1. It is not flexible for applications with unusual functionality.
  2. The errors during development will cost a lot. 
  3. It is poorly productive and slow working. 
  4. It is not that popular compared to other programming languages. 
Those who want to become full-stack developers must consider Ruby on Rails.

Ruby is in the TOP 7 in-demand languages with 70 thousand jobs available.

Ruby is in the TOP 7 in-demand languages with 70 thousand jobs available

The average salary of a developer in the United States is $88,000; in India, it reaches 830 thousand rupees.

Ruby was developed in 1990. It is interpreted and fully object-oriented, often used to develop scripts, work with text, and create new applications. Ruby currently runs many leading companies: Twitter, Crunchbase, and GitHub, and she should be familiar with them in 2022-2023.


C# is designed more to remove the disadvantages of the C++ language. It is object-oriented and general-purpose with a wide range of applications. It regularly works with the .NET platform; it is applicable in the Unity game environment to create scripts. Microsoft initially created the language as part of its platform.NET to develop applications for the Windows operating system.

Job offers curve for С# in the recent eight-month

Job offers curve for С# in the recent eight-month

C# applies a syntax very similar to other languages from the C family. This makes it possible to quickly understand it if a developer is switching from another language in the C family. C# helps create cross-platform applications in Xamarin. People working with virtual reality should consider learning the language being described. Therefore, its relevance for 2023 will remain. It is also suitable for developing 3D and 2D games using the Unity engine (the best game creator, occupying the 3rd part of the market).

Many applications are created with C#, including simple desktop programs and large-scale web portals.

С# programming language

С# programming language
  1. Knowing it opens the doors to other C family languages. 
  2. It is easy to integrate with Windows. 
  3. It fits corporate software requirements. 
  4. It supports versatile, imperative, functional, and declarative programming styles. 
  5. It can function with general code bases. 
  6. Not only that, but it has a vast set of functions. 
  7. Likewise, it offers fast compilations and execution.
  1. C# software loading time is more significant than C++.
  2. It works only with Microsoft Windows.
  3. The variables are typically links. 
  4. It requires a lot of knowledge and experience to fix issues. 
C# is a high-level language similar to English; thus, beginners find it easy to learn. It abstracts the tasks, which makes it different from C++, and has benefits for working with code on PC. It requires primary PC, C, C++, or Java knowledge and introductory object-oriented programming concepts. The following companies actively use C#:
  • Microsoft;
  • Stack Overflow;
  • Accenture; 
  • Alibaba Travels. 
It is a helpful instrument for cross or web applications. The C# developers make about 82 thousand dollars yearly in the USA, while in India, the developers get 646 thousand rupees. 


Rust is another valuable programming language for 2023. It is not as popular and in demand among developers, but it deserves attention. In 2020, Stack Overflow conducted a survey, and Rust was on the list of favorite programming languages among developers, 86% of whom have been working with it for more than five years.

Its primary focus is low-level system programming, but Rust still focuses on security and speed. The main emphasis is on code safety, so programs can't access certain parts of memory that they're not using. 

Rust programming language

Rust programming language

Rust is not a beginner-level language; it is harder to learn than others, yet the skills are better paid for since the popularity only increases. 


Java is a general-purpose programming language used by many platforms and companies. The important part is that the code must not be recompiled to function on any platform. In 2022 Java was recognized as the most valuable and popular language, used by more than 9 million developers worldwide. Programmers know the saying "Write once, run everywhere" is the best characteristic of Java. It was created in 1995, and since then, it hasn't lost its popularity, although more modern languages, such as Kotlin, are appearing. 

Job offering curve for Java developers in the recent eight-month

Job offering curve for Java developers in the recent eight-month

In the USA, Java developers make around 85 thousand dollars a year, while in India, the developers earn 709 thousand rupees. 

Java advantages:

  1. No platform dependence thanks to JVM.
  2. Straightforward syntax, high-level languages, not challenging to learn. 
  3. Numerous API interfaces for different needs (utilities, network processes, connecting to databases, etc.).
  4. A set of powerful instruments that quickly allow the development of an open-source application.
  5. Countless libraries. 
  6. Security is achieved by excluding an explicit pointer.
  7. Multithreading support.
  8. It’s suitable for distributed computing. 
  9. Stable, reliable, and an extensive community. 
  1. It requires a lot of memory space.
  2. There are no templates, hence, creating information structures.
  3. Medium productivity.
  4. Many words used for coding make it complicated. 
Java is the primary choice for people who want to develop applications for Android and web applications. Skills to master include a complete problem-solving approach and knowledge of object-oriented structure.

Java programming language

Java programming language

Currently, about three billion devices run on Java. The language goes with any project, including complex ones. 

Final thoughts 

The developers must know all software and web application development languages. Depending on their targets and aims, they can select several best instruments. For instance, to dive into machine learning, starting with Java or C#.

The most popular languages in 2023 are Python and JavaScript. These are easy to master. Therefore, beginners can start with them, yet the market offers countless job opportunities for decent professionals. The corporate environments will prefer Java or PHP, while C/C++ and Golang will suit scalable systems that require minimal delays. 

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Yuri Musienko
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