Web framework architecture review and classification
Web frameworks rely on IoC, a programming method that passes the management to certain framework application elements. Each detail will follow a specific architecture or template. Many frameworks employ Model-View-Controller (MVC), yet there are others.
The majority of application frameworks have this architecture. It includes three components:
- Model. Data and business model.
- View. Interface details that represent information. The observer template allows updating the model and showing it if necessary.
- Controller. After receiving and processing input at the model, it goes to view.
MVC template helps to distribute the SoC to different parts, thus simplifying updates and scaling. This approach ensures that developers can work on various elements of the application at the same time.
MVC design template
Push-Based vs. Pull-Based
The server initiates data exchange for giving out results. Many frameworks function according to this scheme. The most essential are:
- Ruby on Rails;
- Spring MVC;
The examples above are Push-based.
Pull-Based extracts data through various controllers when necessary. The primary examples are:
- JBoss Seam;
Play, Struts, RIFE, and ZK, can do both push and pull.
This template has three parts and two-sided information linking View and View-Model. This architecture separates the user interfaces and application logic more distinguished.
- Model – basic business logic and data.
- View – input and required action.
- View-Model – doesn’t refer to View, yet the primary task is supporting the View condition and managing the model as actions in view change.
Usually, this structure fits smartphone applications where the primary task is extensive adjustment, personalization, and high productivity.
This architecture is a multi-level system that has three elevated levels:
- User interface.
Each of the categories can be deployed separately as well as managed
without depending on each other. Each tier has different responsibilities in this architecture, and higher tiers have access to lower-tier services. The model described gives resiliency to application failure, allowing all services to scale and function stably.
How to select the best backend framework
Any language type or structure is sufficient for developing an application, yet some of them, including frameworks, will be better for specific cases:
- Python, Flask, or Django are perfect for analytical software that requires processing massive data volumes and involving AI learning models.
- Erlang or Elixir is your choice if you require a communication infrastructure.
- Node.js, .Net, or Java are suitable for corporate-level software that require ceaseless functioning in background mode.
- Python and PHP are solutions for small and medium applications. Still, they will work on larger projects, which are not suitable for them.
It is essential to focus on the team's expertise rather than on the popularity of a framework or language. For instance, if the developer knows PHP and can create the required application, do not ask them to use Node.js. Sails.js will be the appropriate framework. The team will use their knowledge and the structure logic with its help.
Another thing to consider when choosing is the ease and transparency of reading and working with the code. By creating clean code, new team developers will have no difficulty adapting to the project. The last thing to decide is the best support for the framework. The point is not even the size of the community but the frequency of updates to the underlying language that causes framework updates. These mechanics will cause the application to become inoperable until the framework, and the application is updated. You can avoid the problems described by examining the most popular back-end framework and technology trends for 2023.
Top ten most popular backend frameworks in 2022
You will find the list of the most popular backend frameworks below. They can cover all needs for web applications depending on the project specification.
Ruby on Rails
It is an open-source code framework that runs on Ruby programming language and functions on Linux. It employs MVC and has excellent security and scaling characteristics. Moreover, third-party libraries help develop projects faster. 17% of the 1000 best resources work on Ruby on Rails.
- Easy to learn if one knows programming, programming languages, etc.
- The development is faster and more straightforward compared with other languages.
- It has an extensive plugin and modules storage ready for quick integration.
- It offers standardization for numerous development elements, including data storage. Hence, it provides transparency and consistency of development, reducing technical complexities.
- The open-source code helps to use the framework for free, and purchasing Gems on GitHub allows acquiring additional abilities.
- Possible issues with scaling.
- Scaffolding is simple, so it doesn't bring much benefit other than training and testing.
- It is hard to find experienced developers.
- It requires a lot of resources. Numerous tests show that Ruby on Rails is less productive than Django, yet it doesn’t limit the framework. If your application doesn’t require processing millions of queries per second, RoR is a perfect choice.
The following corporations use Ruby on Rails:
Airbnb on Ruby on Rails. Source: Airbnb.co.in
Ruby on Rails helps to create server applications, including database structures, web pages, and additional services
This framework is generally suitable for quick application deployment that requires typical functionality.
Django is an open-source platform that is compatible with Python programming language. The framework helps develop a project quickly and provides a clean design and scaling opportunities. The primary task of Django is to give the developers all they need for building applications and additions. Visual effects, games, and interactive services increase their popularity.
- Straightforward and intuitive interface suitable for several tasks.
- Easy to adjust.
- It offers end-to-end testing.
- Built-in internationalization system that helps to create multilingual websites.
- REST – a platform for various authentication protocols.
- API documentation with HTML output.
- It is a high-level framework suitable for fast web development.
- An extensive set of instruments.
- Comprehensive security. Django has numerous security systems, including SQL, cross-scripting, protection against forgery of requests, and other types of security.
- High level of scaling.
- The framework's versatility and Python will excellently work for a wide range of applications, from learning apps to social networks and software for managing data storage.
Some prominent corporations that employ Django
- It can’t process several queries at a time.
- A small number of dependencies complicates the application.
- The need for system knowledge because Django is an end-to-end development environment, and program creators need to plan all small features to avoid expensive and time-consuming revisions in the future.
- National Geographic.
Spotify runs on Django. Source: Spotify.com
Django is a server environment on Model View Controller (MVC) platform.
Another open-source Python framework is Flask. Frequently, you will hear of it as a micro-framework. The feature is that it is almost independent of external libraries and is a highly-flexible tool for developers. It is famous thanks to high scaling opportunities as a component framework. It relies on Jinja templates and Werkzeug WSGI instruments.
- Better scaling for not complicated applications.
- It is perfect for straightforward projects since it is easy to employ.
- The code base is not large.
- It is compatible with new technologies.
- The prototype develops rapidly and faultlessly.
- Storing and developing the application is simple.
- High servicing price for multifaceted systems.
- Possible issues with asynchrony.
- It lacks support and has a smaller community compared to Django.
- No ORM and databases.
The companies that use Flask
Laravel is a trendy PHP framework for web application development. It has an expressive syntax that helps to speed the code writing and uses Blade, a robust template mechanism.
High productivity and security made this framework well-known. It has numerous libraries for scaling. The MVC architecture is suitable for PHP applications on Symfony. Moreover, it has module packages and a dependency manager that facilitate the work for the developers.
- Scalability. The software allows deploying projects of different scales depending on the need. Scaling helps to use it for small and medium projects.
- Security. Laravel has a built-in access control system and reliable mechanics that allow it to solve any issues quickly. The framework provides storing passwords via encryption instead of text.
- Data transfer is easy; therefore, the development period is shorter.
- Quicker authentication thanks to built-in management systems.
- It is possible to send emails via APIs, as the framework provides API integration, email services, and PHP drivers. This factor dramatically simplifies the sending of messages and the implementation of all notifications.
- Data caching via Redis, Memcached, and other tools using the built-in driver.
- Ease of logging.
- Availability of built-in testing supported by PHPUnit with user simulation capabilities (form input, clicks, application requests, etc.).
- The lightness of framework has many built tools that simplify development but compared to other types, it has a small feature set and refers to lightweight software. It takes more time to create powerful applications.
- Many factors determine the high cost of web infrastructure.
- Limitations in support, because it is not always available, can be a problem of downtime of the entire system.
- Regular updates. On the one hand, this is good, but the downside is that older versions of the product quickly lose relevance, concerns with performance, and possible difficulties updating the software.
- The average speed of the framework leads to a slowdown in web development.
The following companies use Laravel:
- World Walking;
- Koel, Barchart;
- Invoice Ninja;
- Asgard CMS.
Invoice Ninja. Source: Invoiceninja.com
Despite some disadvantages of the framework, it is one of the best solutions for PHP development in 2023. It is powerful, reliable, and multifunctional.
Express is a Node.js framework. It is aggressive and modest and has great functioning speed. Express.js has all instruments for online applications or mobile software. Furthermore, Express supports MEAN, a server development environment, Angular.js interface, and MongoDB library. Altogether they provide stability and multi-functionality.
The Express framework functionality:
- It will work for single and multipage, hybrid-type applications.
- It supports adjusting an intermediary software for responding to HTTP queries.
- Shows dynamic HTML pages.
The framework’s advantages are:
- Minimum expenses on servicing thanks to full stack.
- It supports the Google v8 engine and provides faultless and ceaseless productivity during work.
- The community is always happy to help.
- It has data caching, yet the advantage is that it doesn’t require code. Hence, it supports quick page upload.
The disadvantages are:
- Possible code base clutter due to extensive use of middleware functions.
- Low computational power because Node.js programs constantly interpret code into machine code. This option is not suitable for resource-intensive software.
- No integrated ORM or other methods of working with databases.
The following corporations use Express:
- Fox Sports;
This open-source code framework is perfect for Java EE applications that significantly facilitate the development of applications on Java
. It supports Tomcat, Jetty, and Undertow, and managing the dependencies is straightforward.
The primary advantages are:
- Bean components help to reduce the launch time for applications.
- Java has no template configurations; hence, it doesn’t require template code.
- It has automatic application functioning tests. Liveness is a built-in instrument that tests the functions. If they can’t be executed, the application doesn’t respond, and then it does an automatic reload to guarantee faultless functioning.
Still, there are some disadvantages:
- Developing projects on Java is complex; therefore, production will take longer.
- Spring offers various methods to achieve multiple targets, and selecting the best solutions is sometimes tricky; hence, it might require code refactoring.
Spring is perfect for programmers who work with Java. Yet, without appropriate knowledge, it will cause pain and issues.
ASP.NET Core is the golden standard in .NET application development. It is a module network created by Windows and .NET Foundation. It runs on C#.
- Less code helps develop the applications faster.
- Crossplattform compatibility. The framework employs a C# code base and provides intuitive and smooth work for users on different platforms.
- Servicing speed positively affects productivity.
- The developers have less control over their actions; Core has limitations, and Microsoft Corporation causes links to the supplier.
- Increasing the functionality requires spending funds on licenses.
ASP.NET Core is excellent for web and mobile applications.
The platform employs the Dart programming language, which has grown in popularity. The primary function is short code executing and widgets for machine code. It is a perfect pick for cross-platform applications that function on mobiles with diverse OS and Windows, Linux, Mac, and Google Fuchsia.
- The mechanism allows code changes to a running program without constantly restarting to check for updates.
- Many unique widgets can be customized to work on different platforms.
- Developers get a single code base and functionality to make clean and simple code.
The disadvantages include compatibility with the new functionality of smartphones based on iOS and Android
, with SDK updates. But Google does its best to ensure that Flutter receives the necessary updates, which guarantees the stability of the applications created on its basis.
This framework is future-oriented, allowing you to create beautiful programs on any device.
It is a flagship for application deployment. This offer by Google has numerous advantages and functions on the cloud. Still, the price and binding to the supplier are disadvantages.
Firebase provides all Google services that grant access to data storage in real-time and:
- Data on crashes;
- Cloud storage;
The free Firebase option gives the developers all instruments for applications to function. The framework is one of the best in 2023 in the server environment category for mobile software development.
- Uber Eats;
In 2018, significant architectural changes introduced more versatility and fixed some disadvantages.