Backеnd development entails the use of tools, frameworks, and other resources to develop a website’s engine. The engine is always composed of several basic components, which are inextricably linked to the server, databases, website’s root, external and internal resources. The component, which is linked to the server, can be considered the most important in terms of programming
so you should look at the most powerful backend technologies that are going to be in demand in 2022.
Importance of backеnd frameworks
are essential to both products and developers themselves. Programmers always take note of what tools they are about to work with at a specific job. In particular, this is taken into consideration during the choice of a company to cooperate with. Stack Overflow annually publishes statistical reviews related to developers, web development tools, and other components.
The graph below excellently illustrates the results, so we may conclude that it’s frameworks, programming languages, and various technologies that are the most important in this regard. The programmers evaluate this factor on a first-priority basis when choosing a workplace.
Oftentimes a specific developer knows only one framework at a satisfactorily high level; therefore, it’s crucial to determine which one of them is better and will be popular in 2022 to start learning it right now.
By choosing frameworks, which hold leading positions in this rating, the developer won’t be left irrelevant anyway. According to the latest research, the most promising frameworks seem to be Django, Node.js/Express, and Spring Boot. Each of them is highly professional, but you shouldn’t dismiss their particular advantages, specificities, and even shortcomings.
A statistical approach to learning programming languages and frameworks
To determine those frameworks, which can be at the height of their popularity in the next year, you need to see those sites that do statistical researches of development environments, assess the users’ interest, and analyze frameworks from different points of view.
The first service that makes regular statistical reviews is GitHut. Specifically, it offers extended information about the repositories. This resource collects detailed data about active file repositories, a total number of Pull Requests, and other information – including tasks and the number of the project subscribers, etc.
Another popular service is Stack Overflow. It usually offers quite valuable information as it studies not only frameworks and programming languages
If you consider the repositories of the frameworks’ platforms
, it will help you to make a final conclusion of these frameworks.
You can see the number of forks and stars concerning each of the frameworks here, but the first indicator is far more important.
Express framework for the Node.js platform
Most world-famous projects are based on this engine; for example, Chrome browser and other browser programs that are developed on its basis. You can write a code, which will be executed on the server, on this platform due to the above-mentioned framework. This specifies the high value of the platform to the programmers.
The popularity and efficiency of Node.js are beyond comparison and this is due to many positive qualities including performance and the possibility to create projects of various types and purposes on its basis.
Node.js served as a basis for the creation of many different frameworks, not only Express; however, it’s the one that is considered the most popular and sought-after.
The main strengths of Express include the following:
- support of plugins that enhance functional capabilities of apps. Setting up is simple to perform and takes little time;
- minimalistic, user-friendly interface;
- support of the framework – backend development process is implemented with the use of NPM packages;
- any app’s path can be determined with URL addresses and HTTP methods;
- minimum time spent on debugging, owing to convenient debugging mechanism;
- the framework is compatible with other ones – Kranken, LoopBack, or Sails. You can also connect it to such databases as MySQL, Redis, and MongoDB;
- flexibility – due to this feature, Express was appreciated by such famous companies as Stack, Twitter, and Accenture (server side of other products is also fully or partially built on Express – this refers to PayPal, IBM, GoDaddy, Flickr, Storylens, and Walmart);
- integration capacity of Express – engineers and developers can use the framework with various template engines (from EJS and Jade to Vash).
as building blocks for server apps.
As judged by the advantages of the platform in general and particularly the Express framework, it can be said that this is quite a popular direction for development in 2022. Many famous companies already use these tools and developers make a lot of money for their work on the platform.
As for Spring Boot, this project is a reliable framework for the creation of server apps. It’s also based on Java and was created to simplify the work on microservices. It’s created by Pivotal Software, Inc. and can be used for both traditional WAR apps and standalone Java apps. Spring Boot helps the developers to proceed with programming without wasting time on preparation and setting up the environment. Unlike other Java environments, it provides flexible XML configurations, reliable batch processing, database transactions, a simple workflow, and a broad range of development tools. It usually works by providing default values for codes and the configuration of annotations, which will help you launch any new Spring project in real time instantly. It also follows the «default configuration» strategy to exclude template configurations and other configurations meant for the improvement of unit testing procedures, development, and integration testing.
Spring is great for development and has a lot of advantages and special features:
- simplifies the creation and testing of Java-based apps providing the default setting for unit testing and integration testing;
- reduces the time spent on the development and increases the overall efficiency of the development team;
- helps to set all components for the production-grade Spring-based app automatically;
- provides a lot of plugins, which the developers can use for smooth and convenient work with built-in databases and in-memory databases;
- offers easy access to a command-line interface, which makes the development and testing of Spring Boot apps that are created with the help of Java or Groovy, flexible.
The Spring Boot framework aimed to help developers reduce the development time and enhance the performance by providing the default unit setting and integration tests. If you need to launch a project quickly, you can just adopt all default values and skip the XML configuration. Spring Boot is an extension of Spring, which makes the development, testing, and deployment more convenient. MIT, Platform, Zillow, TransferWise, and Intuit are among the companies, which actively use this framework.
An extensive set of frameworks and libraries, simplicity, and universality turned Python into one of the most popular programming languages. Django is well-known as a high-level framework for Python that combines different libraries. Developers can use it for the creation of effective apps because this framework is suitable almost for any project.
Django's advantages are obvious:
- Rapid development. Due to Django, developers can move from concept development to 100% project completion very quickly.
- High security level. Django helps developers avoid many common security mistakes. Besides, this framework automatically protects the website. First of all, Django manages the account and password without putting important information in cookie files where it might be stolen. As usual, in such cases, the cookie files save keys and the important files are stored in the database.
- Operation speed. This framework is pretty fast due to the fact that it isn’t overloaded with extra details.
Django was released in 2005 and it has already become one of the most popular web frameworks among many developers. It was created as a framework in the Python programming language. Thanks to a set of right features, Django reduces the code amount, which simplifies the creation of web apps and speeds up the development.
Less popular, but yet good frameworks
There are other frameworks, which are particularly popular with developers. So they cannot be discounted in the prospects for 2022.
This framework for PHP is highly appreciated due to its high level of organization, a large set of elements, and effectiveness. It refers to open-source PHP platforms and contains various libraries that help to perform a standard set of tasks.
CakePHP has the following advantages:
- It’s suitable for quick prototype creation.
- Model-View-Control helps to distinguish data presentation from business logic. MVC reduces time and resources, which are spent when a developer creates a web app or a website.
- Compatibility with any latest version of PHP and various website catalogs.
It’s easy to manage and databases are easy to control.
with this framework are very easy to create. This is a set of tools and convenient libraries, due to which a high quality of the end product is ensured.
The use of ASP.NET Core has the following advantages:
- Creation of the apps created on ASP.NET is really fast because the Windows servers are used for code processing.
- Performance is extremely high.
- Simplicity. Developers appreciated this feature that helps to set websites, forms, and processes of authentication.